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Many people have faced 'Malaria' , which is a infectious disease characterized by chills , shaking , and periodic bouts of intense fever . Caused by single celled parasites of the genus Plasmodium , malaria is transmitted from person to person by the bite of female mosquito of the genus Anopheles , within whose body the parasite goes through the development cycle .
Malaria transmissions begins when a female mosquito bites a human already infected with themalaria parasite . The mosquito injects blood containing immature male and female gametes of the malaria parasite . A male gamete fuses with a female gamete to produce a cell known as zygote. The zygote enters the wall of the mosquito's gut and develops into an oocyst. which multiplies to produce a thousands of cells known as sporozoites. The sporozoites leave the wall of the gut and migrate to the mosquito's salivary glands . So that when the infected mosquito bites another human, sporozoites in the mosquito's saliva transfer to the blood of the human.
Sporozoites travel in the blood to the liver where they divide repeatedly to form 30000 to 40000 merozoites . The merozoites leave the liver to enter the bloodstream , where they invade red blood cells . Inside these blood cells , the merozoites multiply rapidly until they forcethe red cells to burst. The destruction of the red blood cells spills wastes , toxins , and other debris into the blood.
The body responds to fever, an immune response that speeds up other immune defences to fight the foreign invaders in the blood. The fever usually occurs in intermittent episodes. An episodes begins with sudden , violent chills , soon followed by an intense fever and then profuse sweating that brings the patient's temperature down again.
Upon initial infection with the malaria parasite , the episodes of fever frequently last 12 hours and usually leave an individual exhausted and bedridden.
Malaria when have repeated cycles can lead to severe anaemia and destruction of liver tissues.
Malaria can be prevented into two ways :-
eliminating existing infections that serve as a source of transmission , or eliminating people's exposure to mosquitoes .
eliminating the source of infection requires aggresive treatment of people who have malaria to cure these infections , as well as continuous surveillance to diagnose and treat new cases promptly .
The second strategy includes permanently destroying bodies of stagnant water where mosquitoes lay their eggs ; treating such habitats with insecticides to kill mosquito larvae ; fogging or spraying insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes ; or using mosquito netting or protective clothing to prevent contact with mosquitoes ......
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