The organizations we belong differs from one another in many ways. Some ways be organised formally while other may be structured casually. But there are some elements which are basic and common in all organisations. The most common element of our organisations is that there is a goal or purpose. Without a goal, there is no reason for an organisation to exist. They acquire and allocate the necessary resources to achieving their goals. Our organisations are not self dependent, but always exist in an environment with other organisations on which they are dependent for the resources they need. Finally thereis some leader or manager who is responsible for helping the organisations to achieve their goals. Without some manager, a coach, a conductor, a sales executive, the organisation can not flourish.
Ever since people started working in groups to achieve the goals, which they could not achieve as individuals - management is an essential part of all organisations to co-ordinate individual efforts. Management is an essential activity in every aspect of organised life. In fact, everyone is a manager in his daily life. A person is required to manage his time and other resources in economic way. Management is a process of taking certain decisions and putting them into action. Both these activities, deciding and doing are important to achieve the goals of any organisations.
In brief :
Management is the brain of an organisation because it takes decisions at every moment.
Management co-ordinates the activities of an organisations in a meaningful manner.
Management is not only a function but also the group of people who discharge it.
It involves utilisation of physical, human and other required resources in a proper way through certain techniques and skills. An organisation becomes a functioning system only when management utilises the resources in a systematic way.
Managers keep themselves in contact with the changing business environment an supply foresight to the organization.
It is primary task of the management to shape the organization and make the resources productive so that society may get optimum benefit.
The survival and success of an organization depend to a large extent on the competence and character of management.
It is a challenging job which requires for a manager to be alert an adaptive and to restrain their emotions an egos.
Complexity and uncertainty of environment differs from one organization to another, so the approach and process of management must be determined keeping in view the realities of each organization.
Management, as a discipline is sufficient old but the experts and management practitioners are not yet agreed on a common definition. Due to growing size and complexities of business, there is rapid change in management styles and complexities of business, there is rapid change in management styles and practices. Therefore, it is very difficult to have a definition of management which may be commonly accepted by all. A wide range of definitions exist in the literature on management. some of these definitions are as follows-
Management is a function, a discipline, a task to be done, and managers practice this discipline, carry out the functions and discharge these tasks-------Peter F. Drucker
Management is the process by which a cooperative group directs actions towards common goals-------------------Joseph Massie
Management is the process by which managers create,direct,maintain and operate purposive organisations through systematic, co-ordinated and co-operative human effort.---------------------------------------Dalton Mac Forland
Management is the work of creating and maintaining environments in which people can accomplish goals efficiently and effectively.----------Robert Albanese
Management is the art of getting things done through people.----------Mary Parker Follett
Management is the co-ordination of all resources through the processes of planning,organising,directing and controlling in order to attain stated goals.----------Henry sisk
For our purposes, management refers to a set of functions which unite group efforts in a meaningful manner.The value of the output or results should be more than the cost of the inputs of resources. The results may be measurable or intangible,direct or indirect,it does not make any difference. There should be net gain in the form of utilisation of resources and achievement of goals.
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